MySQL and MongoDB are two of the most in-demand and competitive database services for web applications. Both are database management systems (DBMS) that enable you to extract data and create reports from a site or application, but they are designed in different ways. MySQL is a legacy table-structured system, whereas MongoDB is a document-based system.
MongoDB is a NoSQL (Not only SQL) database that stores large volumes of data in the form of documents. MongoDB removes the concept of "rows" of conventional and relational data models by introducing "documents." This offers the developers the flexibility to work with evolving data models.
MySQL is a free, open-source, relational database management system that stores data in the form of tables containing rows and columns. It uses RDBMS to ensure referential integrity between the rows of a table and interprets queries to fetch information from the database.
Now that you the objectives of these database management systems, let’s look at some of the differences between them.
|Data Structure||It stores each individual record as a table cell with rows and columns||It stores unrelated data in JSON like documents|
|Schema||MySQL requires a schema definition for the tables in the database||MongoDB does not require any prior schema|
|Languages||Supports Structured Query Language (SQL)||Supports JSON Query Language to work with data|
|Foreign Key||Supports the usage of Foreign keys||Does not support the usage of Foreign keys|
|Replication||Supports master-slave replication and master-master replication||Supports sharding and replication|
|Scalability||SQL Database can be scaled vertically||MongoDB database can be scaled both vertically and horizontally|
|Join Operation||Supports Join operation||Does not support Join operation|
|Performance||Optimized for high performance joins across multiple tables||Optimized for write performance|
|Risks||Prone to SQL injection attack||Since there is no schema, lesser risks involved|
|Community Support||There are currently (always increasing) about 222k repositories and 7Million commits on GitHubfor support on MySQL||There are currently (always increasing) about 177k repositories and 923k commits on GitHub for support on MongoDB|
Applications, like an accounting system that requires multi-row transactions, would be better suited for a relational database. MySQL is an excellent choice if you have structured data and need a traditional relational database.
MongoDB is well-suited for real-time analytics, content management, the Internet of Things, mobile, and other types of applications. It is an ideal choice if you have unstructured and/or structured data with rapid growth potential.
MySQL is well-suited for the following use cases:
1. High-traffic sites, such as e-commerce or social sites
2. Sites that require high security protocols, such as government-based and compliance-heavy industries
MongoDB is optimal for the following use cases:
1. Legacy businesses that seek to upgrade big data
2. Content management systems (CMS)
3. High-query sites and applications, such as analytics apps